The microwave is known for its one line of sight wireless communication technology, which uses beams of radio waves of high frequency for delivering high-speed wireless connections which can receive and send voice, data information, and video.
The microwave links are popularly used for communications for their consistency of small wavelength. The small wavelength allows them the conveniently sized antennas for directing them in narrow beams. Which can be pointed directly towards the relieving antenna. By this method, it allows the nearby microwave tool to use the same frequencies without deterring each other, as done by the lower regularity radio waves.
The high frequency of microwaves gives the microwave band with a big information and data capacity. It has a bandwidth of 30 times of all the radio spectrum below it.
The microwave radio transmission is popularly utilized as a point-to-point transmission system on the covering of the earth, in satellite communications, and deep-space radio communications. The remaining parts are used for radars, sensor policies, radio navigation, and radio astronomy.
The bigger portion of the radio electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies 30GHz and below 100GHz are known as millimeter waves, as their wavelengths are measured in millimeters. The wavelength ranges from 10mm to 3mm. The radio waves are strong, by the earth particles and atmosphere mainly in the rainy weather or damp climate.
The wide band of frequencies ranges from 60GHz, as the tides are amassed by molecular oxygen in the environment.
The electronic technologies appropriate for the millimeter-wave band are more complex and are tough to make than the microwave band. Hence the price is higher.
What Is The Use Of Microwave Links?
- The backbone links are for Internet Service Providers and Wireless ISP’s.
- The last mile communication and backbone links for cellular network operators.
- Broadcast the television with HD, SDI, and SMPTE standards.
- Corporate systems for building to house and campus sites.
- Telecommunications is correlating between the remote and regional telephone exchanges to bigger exchanges without the urgency of optic fiber cords or copper lines.
What Are The Modern Commercial Microwave Links?
The microwave link is the communication system, which utilizes the beam of radio waves in the microwave frequency ranging to transmit video, data, and audio between the locations of two, that can be from just a few feet, millimeter, kilometer, and miles away.
The modern microwave links can hold up with the 400Mbps in a 56MHz channel by utilizing the 256QAM modulation and IP header procedures of reduction.
The operating microwave distances for links are discerned by the antenna size, link capacity, and frequency band. The availability of the clear line for the sight is crucial for microwave links.
The microwave links are popularly used by television broadcasters to transmit programs, across the nation. The mobile units can be camera ascended allowing cameras the freedom to change positions without the trailing cables. These are detected in the touchlines of athletics fields.
What Things To Keep In Mind While Planning For Microwave Links?
- The price of permissions for the urgency of regularity bands.
- Environmental constraints.
- Allowed personal leagues which are particular to some nation or community.
- If compelled to achieve noticeable LOS, the buildings are mandatory.
- The availability of an obvious cable of sight between the endnotes.
- Desired availability of target proportion for the link.
- Required duration I.e, kilometers or miles and capacities.
The Idea About Microwave Frequency Bands
The microwave signals are divided into three category-
- Ultra-high regularity is 0.3-3 GHz.
- Super high frequency is 3-30 GHz.
- Extremely high frequency is 30-300 GHz.
The microwave regularity bands are nominated by the personal consequences. The nominations by the radio community of Great Britain are;
- The microwave frequency range:
- L band 1 to 2 GHz
- D band 2 to 4 GHz
- C band 4 to 8 GHz
- X band 8 to 12 GHz
- Ku band 12 to 18 GHz
- K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
- Ka-band 26.5 to 40 GHz
- Q band 30 to 50 GHz
- U band 40 to 60 GHz
- V band 50 to 75 GHz
- E band 60 to 90 GHz
- W band 75 to 110 GHz
- F band 90 to 140 GHz
- D band 110 to 170 GHz
The P band is utilized as ultra-high frequency below the L band. The shorter microwave regularities are utilized for longer links, and regions where the elevated rain fade. The elevated microwave regularities are utilized for shorter links and countries with lower rain fade.
What Is Rain Fade On Microwave Links?
The rain fade on microwave links pertains to the absorption of microwave radio frequency signal by the atmospheric storm which is particularly common for regularities above 11GHz.
This also relates to the degradation of the indication resulted in by the electromagnetic interference of the front edge of the rain front.
The rain fade can be resulted in by the moisture at the downlink or uplink of the location or region. This does not mean that the location has to be showering or raining. From five to twenty percent of rain fade or satellite, the signal loss may also be resulted in by the rain or any feed horn, or antenna mirror, or reflector.
The rain fade is not stocked up to restricted to satellites downlinks or uplinks. It also influences the terrestrial point-to-point microwave links on the earth’s surface. The way to withstand rain fade is area diversification, hydrophobic membranes, and uplink energy custody.
What Is The Diversity In Microwave Links?
The terrestrial microwave links, which is a variety strategy that pertains to the techniques which enhance the trustworthiness of the message signal. This can be done by utilizing two or additional information tunnels with diversification in temperaments.
Variety or diversity takes advantage of a substantial role in combatting fading and co-channel interference and averting omission explosions. Multiple phases of a similar signal can be disseminated or obtained and incorporated into the receptor.
The assortment techniques can be influenced by various propaganda which outcomes in an increase in variety, assessed in decibels.
The categories that can are particular in terrestrial microwave links are as follows :
- Heated standby
- Frequency of regulatory variation
- Area or space variety/diversity
- Polarization variety or diversity