What Is Microwave Technology And How It Works?

The microwave is known for its one line of sight wireless communication technology, which uses beams of radio waves of high frequency for delivering high-speed wireless connections which can receive and send voice, data information, and video.

The microwave links are popularly used for communications for their consistency of small wavelength. The small wavelength allows them the conveniently sized antennas for directing them in narrow beams. Which can be pointed directly towards the relieving antenna. By this method, it allows the nearby microwave tool to use the same frequencies without deterring each other, as done by the lower regularity radio waves.

The high frequency of microwaves gives the microwave band with a big information and data capacity. It has a bandwidth of 30 times of all the radio spectrum below it.

The microwave radio transmission is popularly utilized as a point-to-point transmission system on the covering of the earth, in satellite communications, and deep-space radio communications. The remaining parts are used for radars, sensor policies, radio navigation, and radio astronomy.

The bigger portion of the radio electromagnetic spectrum with frequencies 30GHz and below 100GHz are known as millimeter waves, as their wavelengths are measured in millimeters. The wavelength ranges from 10mm to 3mm. The radio waves are strong, by the earth particles and atmosphere mainly in the rainy weather or damp climate.

The wide band of frequencies ranges from 60GHz, as the tides are amassed by molecular oxygen in the environment.

The electronic technologies appropriate for the millimeter-wave band are more complex and are tough to make than the microwave band. Hence the price is higher.

What Is The Use Of Microwave Links?

  1. The backbone links are for Internet Service Providers and Wireless ISP’s.
  2. The last mile communication and backbone links for cellular network operators.
  3. Broadcast the television with HD, SDI, and SMPTE standards.
  4. Corporate systems for building to house and campus sites.
  5. Telecommunications is correlating between the remote and regional telephone exchanges to bigger exchanges without the urgency of optic fiber cords or copper lines.

What Are The Modern Commercial Microwave Links?

The microwave link is the communication system, which utilizes the beam of radio waves in the microwave frequency ranging to transmit video, data, and audio between the locations of two, that can be from just a few feet, millimeter, kilometer, and miles away.

The modern microwave links can hold up with the 400Mbps in a 56MHz channel by utilizing the 256QAM modulation and IP header procedures of reduction.

The operating microwave distances for links are discerned by the antenna size, link capacity, and frequency band. The availability of the clear line for the sight is crucial for microwave links.

The microwave links are popularly used by television broadcasters to transmit programs, across the nation. The mobile units can be camera ascended allowing cameras the freedom to change positions without the trailing cables. These are detected in the touchlines of athletics fields.

What Things To Keep In Mind While Planning For Microwave Links?

  1. The price of permissions for the urgency of regularity bands.
  2. Environmental constraints.
  3. Allowed personal leagues which are particular to some nation or community.
  4. If compelled to achieve noticeable LOS, the buildings are mandatory.
  5. The availability of an obvious cable of sight between the endnotes.
  6. Desired availability of target proportion for the link.
  7. Required duration I.e, kilometers or miles and capacities.

The Idea About Microwave Frequency Bands

The microwave signals are divided into three category-

  • Ultra-high regularity is 0.3-3 GHz.
  • Super high frequency is 3-30 GHz.
  • Extremely high frequency is 30-300 GHz.

The microwave regularity bands are nominated by the personal consequences. The nominations by the radio community of Great Britain are;

  • The microwave frequency range:
  • L band 1 to 2 GHz
  • D band 2 to 4 GHz
  • C band 4 to 8 GHz
  • X band 8 to 12 GHz
  • Ku band 12 to 18 GHz
  • K band 18 to 26.5 GHz
  • Ka-band 26.5 to 40 GHz
  • Q band 30 to 50 GHz
  • U band 40 to 60 GHz
  • V band 50 to 75 GHz
  • E band 60 to 90 GHz
  • W band 75 to 110 GHz
  • F band 90 to 140 GHz
  • D band 110 to 170 GHz

The P band is utilized as ultra-high frequency below the L band. The shorter microwave regularities are utilized for longer links, and regions where the elevated rain fade. The elevated microwave regularities are utilized for shorter links and countries with lower rain fade.

What Is Rain Fade On Microwave Links?

The rain fade on microwave links pertains to the absorption of microwave radio frequency signal by the atmospheric storm which is particularly common for regularities above 11GHz.

This also relates to the degradation of the indication resulted in by the electromagnetic interference of the front edge of the rain front.

The rain fade can be resulted in by the moisture at the downlink or uplink of the location or region. This does not mean that the location has to be showering or raining. From five to twenty percent of rain fade or satellite, the signal loss may also be resulted in by the rain or any feed horn, or antenna mirror, or reflector.

The rain fade is not stocked up to restricted to satellites downlinks or uplinks. It also influences the terrestrial point-to-point microwave links on the earth’s surface. The way to withstand rain fade is area diversification, hydrophobic membranes, and uplink energy custody.

What Is The Diversity In Microwave Links?

The terrestrial microwave links, which is a variety strategy that pertains to the techniques which enhance the trustworthiness of the message signal. This can be done by utilizing two or additional information tunnels with diversification in temperaments.

Variety or diversity takes advantage of a substantial role in combatting fading and co-channel interference and averting omission explosions. Multiple phases of a similar signal can be disseminated or obtained and incorporated into the receptor.

The assortment techniques can be influenced by various propaganda which outcomes in an increase in variety, assessed in decibels.

The categories that can are particular in terrestrial microwave links are as follows :

  • Vulnerable
  • Heated standby
  • Frequency of regulatory variation
  • Area or space variety/diversity
  • Polarization variety or diversity
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10 Ways Technology Helps To Protect the Environment

Humans and technology have been going side by side for a very long time. Life without technology is unimaginable. Although some technological advancements have led to the deterioration of certain aspects of nature, technology helps protect the environment in dozens of ways. With evolving technology, the impact of humans on the environment is also reducing. However, if we can use the present technology wisely, there will be several ways by which we can maintain ecological balance and sustainability. Here are the ten ways in which technology is helping to protect and save the environment:

Digitalization is saving the trees:

With the advent of modernization, computers, tablets, smartphones, etc., have replaced paper usage to a great extent. Cloud storage and various other facilities have helped store various digital documents safely and securely without involving paper use. This is also a convenient and easy way to keeping records without fearing the risk of losing them.

Several companies prefer sending e-bills and newsletters and communicate through emails instead of depending on papers.

People also contribute to this digitalization to a great extent. For example, people prefer calendars and notepads on their smartphones instead of physical calendars and notepads.

This digitalization has not only reduced deforestation but has also helped to reduce global warming by saving millions of trees!

  1. Eco-friendly energy resources:

It is the world’s primary concern to shift their focus to renewable energy resources from non-renewable energy resources. Non-renewable energy resources like oil, gas, etc., not only create pollution, but their extraction and production methods hamper the environment to a great extent.

Using renewable energy sources like wind, solar, tidal, hydroelectric, etc., the energy sector has become clean, eco-friendly, and cheaper. Products like solar panel is more accessible and less expensive to various industries, educational institutes, and even ordinary households.

  1. It has helped to monitor the environment:

Technology has helped monitor the environment in several ways to ensure that the rules and environment-related laws are being followed. In vast conservation areas and national parks, the conservationists use drones to keep poachers away and save the endangered animals from being killed. These drones cover vast regions, which was not possible to keep track of previously.

The Government uses Geospatial measurement technologies to keep track of pollutants present near oil and gas facilities.

Sharing economy:

The popularity of sharing economy is rising every day. It enables individuals to gain access to basic facilities without having to buy them. This has reduced environmental impact to a great extent. Car rental companies have helped people to travel to places without actually owning a car. Several homestays have made use of the houses that are not being used anymore. Online streaming services have defined a new source of entertainment for people. Without purchasing or renting DVDs, people can watch thousands of movies and shows from a single application.

Electric cars have reduced pollution:

The development and popularity of electric cars have helped the environment to a great extent. Electric vehicles have zero direct emissions, leading to lesser smog and climate change than diesel and gas cars. Hybrid cars have also become popular. Electric vehicles also help to conserve non-renewable sources of energy since they depend on electricity to run. Due to this fact, a sharp drop in electric cars’ prices has been observed, and according to experts, electric vehicles will become cheaper than diesel and gas cars by 2022.

Smart homes are more environment friendly:

With more and more ‘smarter’ homes being developed throughout the world, a new technological revolution is taking place, helping the environment in various ways.

Smart devices like AC controllers, thermostats, smart meters, and motion-activated lighting sensors have helped conserve electricity and reduce wastage.

Due to this, smart devices, houses, offices consume less energy and help sustain the environment.

It is helping to eliminate waste:

Technology has not helped to find a better alternative for paper but has also reduced unnecessary waste materials. By going digital, the environment is saved of millions of paper waste, plastic waste from cassettes and DVDs, and other waste materials generated out of the packaging.

Technology has also helped eliminate food waste to a certain extent by keeping track of it starting right from the farm. This is done dramatically with data collection as it has helped conserve and reduce food waste. Nearly one-third of the food resources of the world are thrown out.

Technology is helping to conserve overall resources:

Nowadays, appliances inform its users about the waste of energy, but they also email the user if a working part is going to wear out! Hence this not only saves money but also reduces waste from being dumped into landfills. All you need to do is replace that broken part!

To conserve electricity, ‘Green buildings’ are being constructed to help implement and harness natural lighting. 93% of coal consumption is accounted for electric power. So by using these innovative resources, this coal consumption can be reduced to a great extent.

Renewable technology is developing innovative solutions:

The research and development of renewable technology have helped the environment in recent years. Take the example of solar glass. It can be used as a window, and it can convert sunlight into electricity without the involvement of photovoltaic panels. Isn’t this an innovative way of using technology to sustain the environment?!

Plant-based plastics is a boon:

There is a huge demand for plastics throughout the world. So by switching over to plant-based plastics instead of oil-based ones, there is a great potential to save the environment. These plant-based plastics are biodegradable and more sustainable than traditional plastics.

It might seem that technology and nature are two completely separate entities, but they are interconnected in ways that we cannot imagine! It can be said that nature does inspire technology! With more and more technologies developed, we are focusing on a new revolution where human actions and technology will not harm the environment but will protect and sustain it!

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5 Ways Technology is Changing Agriculture

Farming practices have progressed dramatically over time, from simple hand tools to the advanced equipment we use today. Farmers are increasingly embracing modernity, allowing them to maximize their ability in whatever farming activity they want. Farming methods have become more refined and far less manual, yields are rising, so it’s not unusual to see cattle, poultry, and dairy cows on the very same farm. So what is it that is triggering these shifts? The solution is straightforward. Technological advancements!

Agriculture, like any other industry in the world, has been impacted by technological advances. In today’s world, technology aids farmers & growers in a variety of ways, including accurate forecasting, data-driven decision making, and more. The reforms have also had a positive effect on most farmers’ bottom lines, resulting in increased access to food goods at fair prices. Let’s look at some of the particular aspects of that technology that has changed agriculture.

Online Resources

Farmers now have unparalleled access to a wealth of useful resources and technologies to make farming simpler, thanks to the widespread adoption of internet technology. Specifically, the internet provides a plethora of development and preparation resources to assist them in forecasting potential crops.

Furthermore, the World Wide Web offers many farming forums where they can seek advice, share ideas, and engage in thought-provoking discussions. These online communities have extensive support groups which can assist farmers without ever having to visit the farm.


The thought of tractors pulling themselves mostly on-farm was unthinkable only a few decades ago. The introduction of GPS technology, on the other hand, has changed everything. At any point near or on the earth’s surface, GPS provides precise location data. As a result, farming machines equipped with GPS receivers can recognize their location mostly on-farm and adjust their operations to maximize their productivity.

Tractors fitted with automated steering systems and GPS technology are now being used to boost seed placement on farms, reducing waste and costs. In addition, livestock tracking, crop spraying, and 3D mapping all are tasks that GPS-directed drones are progressive to be used for.

GPS has a wide range of features that go beyond tractor use. Farmers, for example, may use a GPS receiver to locate predetermined locations in a farm field for soil samples taken. The selected soil samples will then be analyzed in a geographic information system to produce a fertility chart. Farmers may precisely prescribe the amount of fertilizer needed for each sampled portion of its farm field that uses the map. Afterward, the farmer could use fertilizer applicators with technology having variable-rate to distribute the exact amount of fertilizer in the region.


Farmers are increasingly using sensors, such as GPS technology, to understand their crops at such a micro level, conserve resources, and reduce environmental impacts. The majority of precision agriculture sensing technologies provide vital data that allows farmers to adjust their strategies to evolving environmental factors.

GPS satellite signals are used by location sensors to determine latitude, longitude, and altitude. A farmer must have at least three satellites to efficiently triangulate a location. Plant soil and color reflectance data also are aggregated and processed using optical sensors in precision agriculture. They are being used to calculate the moisture content, clay content, and organic material of the soil more specifically.

Sensors could be used to monitor anything from soil temperature to grain silo humidity. They could also provide crucial soil health information. Furthermore, sensor technology enables farmers to make better use of their irrigation water, reduce prices, and reduce waste.

Mobile Devices

When technology advances, so do mobile technology, as demonstrated by the increasing number of applications available. This advancement has had a huge effect on every aspect of life, with agriculture benefiting as well.

Mobile apps have become the actual game-changers. They’ve made a positive difference in the lives of landowners and farmers. Farmers may use a variety of mobile apps to gather information about their field farms, watch the weather, and get timely updates.

Farmers are seamlessly moving from managing fields to building farm maps and encouraging its use of drones, thanks to the information provided by mobile apps. When it comes to everything from plan development to progress monitoring, the program that powers the apps puts them in control.

Smart Farming

Because all of the above innovations are combined, the outcome is a smart farming method, also known as precision agriculture. Smart farming entails incorporating modern communication and information technologies into agriculture, resulting in the Third Green Revolution. The agricultural sector is slowly being transformed by the combined use of ICT solutions, including the GPS, IoT, sensors, robotics, and actuators, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Big Data, precision equipment, and far more.

We will illustrate how various technologies are combined to provide smart farming utilizing irrigation as just an example. A farmer may install a sensor through an irrigator to determine the moisture level of the soil before watering the farm field. The data gathered can then be used to adjust the amount of water needed.

Drones may be used by farmers to determine plant health and, if necessary, take corrective actions. Likewise, smart farming techniques enable farmers to better track their animals’ individual needs and adjust their diet accordingly, preventing disease and improving their wellbeing and health.

Smart farming gives farmers the ability to produce a more efficient and sustainable yield based on data collected in the field. It also adds value to farmers by allowing them to make better and more timely decisions.

Without question, technology is changing the way we work and live. 

Final Words

Agriculture has experienced many disruptions as a result of the introduction of different technologies, with a particular focus on agricultural employment. Agricultural technician jobs are becoming increasingly popular to meet the needs of the changing times. Nonetheless, it is undeniable that technology has improved agriculture! You should learn more about the various types of agricultural employment that technology makes possible, including agronomy, agricultural finance, and livestock.

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5 Things You Didn’t Know About Nanotechnology

Regardless as to how much we hear, there was something mysterious about nanotechnology. We can’t see everything, and we can’t sense it for sure. Scientists believe that it would be in our medicine, but it is strange to think about anything that can only save your existence with nanometers.

Do we use it and don’t even realize it in our everyday life? What’s nanotechnology nicer still? It seems to be the future already occurring, but we don’t even know? These questions are answered: yes, in every place and kind. In consumer goods, medical care, the alimentary industry, and also more, nanotechnology has found a place. In reality, tracking where nanotechnology is not has become increasingly difficult. And the fact would be that the promise of technology is not close at all. Several of the outstanding achievements in laboratories are now being made. And there have been only a few of the simplest types of nanotechnology, mostly on the market.

Stay with us because we assemble the nanoscale cheat sheet and find out certain nanotechnology that could be on the horizon in your country.

It Will Help in Saving Life

The most promising field in which nanotech could be used might very well be medication. Many different therapies for tumors at the cellular level, for example for cancer, have been created. Research showed positive results from the treatment of a number of cancers utilizing golden nanoparticles. The particles are transmitted into the tumors as well as the cells are heated by an infrared laser when fired.

The most important problem with these therapies is the delivery of the nanoparticles to malignant cells while preventing healthy cells. After the administering method has been perfected, such particles can develop an amount of new noninvasive therapies, which would destroy tumors without the need for an operational trauma.

Regardless of delivery mechanisms, nanotechnology will help physicians avoid brain cancer and target lung cancer without exposing the chest without physical entry to the sufferer’s skull.

You Must Be Touching Them Presently

Regardless of the type of machine or device you are reading this post, you are probably currently also using nanotech. Nanomaterials processors and storage components are standard on the market, including antimicrobial coverings that can be seen on keyboards, mice, and boxes.

We could begin by seeing photonic crystals that make it much easier to interpret tablet screens in daylight by adjusting the color of its reflected sunlight instead of depending on the projected light of the unit. The LCD is now being lined up as a common standard and for smartphone monitors to substitute the LCD. One moment, a transparent and thin coating of nanoparticles would save a watery demise on your smartphone.

Eventually, your gadgets can last up to three times as far on a single charge only because the battery consists of tiny hairs labeled nanowhiskers. The anodes have had a much larger surface area, so that they might store additional electrons with tin throughout the lithium-ion battery. This means that you could always spend more time, dial more mobile phones and stop your Words With Friends only plug-in.

You May Be Wearing Them

The fashion industry has promised nanotechnology in manufacturing since before the early 2000s. Whatever aversion to T-shirt-driven smartphones from the shopping public, we continuously hear the ideas toss around. To be fair, there are functional aspects to the concept of piezoelectric generators. Just imagine a tent to produce sufficient electricity to charge LED lamps from the tiny breeze. Or how about a boat on every flap of its sail to recharge its batteries? Nanotech in fabric suddenly begins to be meaningful.

However, not every nanotech concept is so well received. A new product that kills odor-causing bacteria in clothing has raised several questions and concerns. Nanosilver’s nano-sized pieces of silver are just what his name means. Sport clothes designers and laundry procrastinators became excited when they found out nanosilver would prevent the development of clothing as well as other items. The silver particles attract the insulting bacteria and pop their cells practically.

It is a Kind of Biomimicry

Would you like a pair of pants which don’t absorb water? How about a non-gooey pad that allows you to climb a glass wall? You can purchase those nifty pants in supermarkets, but you’ll need to work out your inner Spider-Man throughout the right laboratory. Yeah, those were two examples of real-life nanotech, and both existed in nature even before science was noticed. Let us just take a closer look. 

Take into account the wellbeing of careless eaters: The textile industry has been developing efficient stain-resistant fabrics for many years. When all these errant drops & spills stopped getting in and when they began utilizing nanowhiskers. If you ever saw beads of rainfall and rolled a lotus leaf off—or several other leafy plants living in wet areas—you could find natural nano-wheaters. The plate is coated with nano-sized hairs, which help water droplets that do not absorb or adhere to the surface of the leaf. By attaching nanotubes to clothing fibers, companies may produce cotton, wool, or synthetic materials to repel liquid.

It’s not the science safest life for cat burglars, which is critical here. Instead, we have hardly started exploring the potential of nanotechnology, and future advances may come directly from nature. The hard thing is to design goods that complement and do not hurt the living world.

It May Be Present in Personal Products and Food

Food is indeed a field in which several people are focusing on nanotechnology’s love & interest. Many citizens are paying premiums to ensure that organic or ethical food or all of them are grown, and it is not surprising that they wouldn’t even wish to consider nanoparticles being ingested. So let’s consider some practical uses for nanotechnology for food as well as other consumables before we can get too spooked out.

So these are the 5 things that you must be not knowing about nanotechnology. It can be concluded that nanotechnology in the future will be of great importance and bring a lot of positive impacts.

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